Romanesque art, a style of architecture and other branches of art that arose in Western Europe in the 10th century. The term “Romanesque” (French: Romanesque, Spanish: romanico, German: Romanik from Latin: romanum – Roman) appeared at the beginning of the 19th century when historians and romantic artists, discovering the art of the early Middle Ages, noticed that the architecture of this era externally reminds ancient Roman. The Romanesque era is the time of the emergence of a pan-European architectural style. The leading role in this process was played by the peoples of Western Europe. The formation of Western European Romanesque culture due to continuous wars and the migration of peoples took place later than in the East, in Byzantium, but proceeded more dynamically. The main feature of the Romanesque era is its openness to external influences.
The ornamentation of Romanesque art, mostly borrowed in the East, was based on the utmost generalization, geometrization, and schematization of the pictorial image. In everything, simplicity, power, strength, clarity were felt. Typically, the absence of any particular program in the placement of decorative motifs: geometric, “animal”, biblical – they are interspersed in the most bizarre way. Sphinxes, centaurs, griffins, lions and harpies coexist Continue reading
Pop art (popular art from popular art) is a trend that developed first in modernist fine art, and then in various areas of mass culture of the 20th century.
Pop art arose in the 50s of the 20th century in the USA and Great Britain and finally won a “place in the sun” at the international exhibition in Venice (1964), having won over abstract art. The main prize was then received by the American artist R. Rauschenberg for “subject compilation” composed of combinations of colorful postcards and a fragment of a poster, clippings from illustrated magazines and photographs of the murdered President J. Kennedy.
Representatives of pop art in the person of R. Rauschenberg offered the viewer art that operates on familiar objects, which, torn from the usual connections with surrounding objects, appeared in random, paradoxical combinations.
“New objectivity”, which Cubism asserted at the beginning of the 20th century, returned in subject compilations of pop art. Turning to the world of things created by mass industrial production, pop art quickly entered the sphere of Continue reading
Modern – (French moderne from Latin modemus – new, modern) – the period of development of European art at the turn of the XIX-XX centuries, the main content of which was the desire of artists to contrast their work with the historicism and eclecticism of art of the second half of the XIX century – this is the name. Therefore, the term “modern” should be distinguished from the general meaning of the word “contemporary” or “contemporary art”, as well as the term “modernism”, which means all the most avant-garde, experimental and formalistic trends in the art of the 20th century.
The chronological framework of Art Nouveau is very narrow, only some thirty years: approximately 1886-1914. However, Modern is not just one style, but many different styles and trends that make up the period, maybe no less important than the Renaissance of the 16th century.
The Art Nouveau period can also be compared with the era of the XVII-XVIII centuries, of course not in the volume of created values, but in the logic of the development of artistic ideas. Just as then – Classicism, Baroque, Rococo and again Neoclassicism, art of the late XIX century. summarized the experience of all previous artistic Continue reading