Surrealism (from the French surrealisme – literally super-realism) is a trend in contemporary bourgeois art that originated in France in the early 1920s. Being a characteristic expression of the crisis of capitalist society. Surrealism finds its philosophical foundations in the subjective-idealistic theory of Freud. The contradictions tearing apart the bourgeois system, the feelings of horror in front of the real world, generated by these contradictions among some surrealist artists detached from the people, are embodied by the latter in images that cause an aversion to reality, to life. Hence the special interest of the surrealists in reproducing nightmares, hallucinations, pathological conditions. Created on the basis of the “principles” of surrealism, the paintings of Salvador Dali are filled with horrors, nightmares, and pessimism.
Its creators – young artists, poets considered surrealism as a way of knowing the subconscious, supernatural. According to the definition of the founder and ideologist of this trend, Andre Breton, surrealism is “pure psychic automatism, with the goal of expressing, either verbally, in writing, or in any other way, the real functioning of thought. The dictation of thought is beyond any control on the part of the mind, outside of any Continue reading
Modern – (French moderne from Latin modemus – new, modern) – the period of development of European art at the turn of the XIX-XX centuries, the main content of which was the desire of artists to contrast their work with the historicism and eclecticism of art of the second half of the XIX century – this is the name. Therefore, the term “modern” should be distinguished from the general meaning of the word “contemporary” or “contemporary art”, as well as the term “modernism”, which means all the most avant-garde, experimental and formalistic trends in the art of the 20th century.
The chronological framework of Art Nouveau is very narrow, only some thirty years: approximately 1886-1914. However, Modern is not just one style, but many different styles and trends that make up the period, maybe no less important than the Renaissance of the 16th century.
The Art Nouveau period can also be compared with the era of the XVII-XVIII centuries, of course not in the volume of created values, but in the logic of the development of artistic ideas. Just as then – Classicism, Baroque, Rococo and again Neoclassicism, art of the late XIX century. summarized the experience of all previous artistic Continue reading
Mannerism (Italian: Manierismo – pretentiousness, mannerism from maniera – reception, method) – a name that conventionally indicates stylistic tendencies, as well as a certain stage in the development of European, mainly Italian, art of the middle and late 16th century. This stage reflected the crisis of artistic ideals of the Italian Renaissance. The art of Mannerism as a whole is characterized by the primacy of form over content. Exquisite technique, virtuosity of manner, demonstration of mastery does not correspond to the scarcity of design, secondary and imitative ideas. In Mannerism there is a tiredness of the style, the exhaustion of its life sources. That is why this term is often interpreted more broadly, calling mannerism the last, crisis phase of the development of any artistic style in various historical eras.
Mannerism always indicates the degeneration of one and the imminent advent of a new style. This role was most clearly manifested in Italy, where the mannerist tendencies foreshadowed the birth of Baroque. H. Wölflin wrote that it was not by chance that Mannerism received such a powerful development in Italy, where “the cult of naked body plastic was especially developed … In the movement of figures by Leonardo and Michelangelo … every moment Continue reading