Pop art (popular art from popular art) is a trend that developed first in modernist fine art, and then in various areas of mass culture of the 20th century.
Pop art arose in the 50s of the 20th century in the USA and Great Britain and finally won a “place in the sun” at the international exhibition in Venice (1964), having won over abstract art. The main prize was then received by the American artist R. Rauschenberg for “subject compilation” composed of combinations of colorful postcards and a fragment of a poster, clippings from illustrated magazines and photographs of the murdered President J. Kennedy.
Representatives of pop art in the person of R. Rauschenberg offered the viewer art that operates on familiar objects, which, torn from the usual connections with surrounding objects, appeared in random, paradoxical combinations.
“New objectivity”, which Cubism asserted at the beginning of the 20th century, returned in subject compilations of pop art. Turning to the world of things created by mass industrial production, pop art quickly entered the sphere of modern mass culture and connected with advertising, design, and decorative art. English pop art, short for popular art – popular, accessible art, the term is also explained by the meaning of the onomatopoeic English “pop” – an abrupt punch, cotton, slap, that is, as an art that produces a shocking effect.
Pop art arose as a kind of reaction to the dominance of abstract art with its complete separation from reality and as a continuation in the conditions of total industrial civilization of extravagant experiments of Dadaism and surrealism of the 20s.
It gained distribution primarily in the art of the United States (R. Rauschenberg, C. Aldenberg, R. Lichtenstein, J. Rosenquist, J. Dyne, E. Warhol), and then Great Britain (P. Blake, R. Hamilton), France (A. Fernandez; N. de Saint-Fall), Germany (P. Wunderlich) and other countries. Representatives of Pop Art proclaimed their goals “a return to reality”, the disclosure of the aesthetic value of mass production samples. They literally reproduce typical objects of modern urbanized life (household items, packaging of goods, machine parts, etc.), widely use the usual language of the media (stamped advertising, press, television, film, documentary photography, comics, etc.) .). However, despite the variety of figurative associations evoked by the audience with Pop Art works, their apparent topicality, they are alienated from true reality: vivid visual effects (achieved with the help of the latest artificial materials and sophisticated techniques) drown out the notes of irony that pass through them, the hostility’s rejection in a “consumption for consumption” society.
After World War II, a large social stratum of people formed in America who earned enough money to buy goods that were not particularly important to them. For example, the consumption of goods: Coca cola or Levi’s jeans become an important attribute of this society. A person, using one or another product, shows his belonging to a certain social layer. Current formed mass culture. Things became symbols, stereotypes. Pop art necessarily uses stereotypes and symbols.
Many pop art creators use creative methods that come from Dadaist experiments (the “Dada” society) when the form is not modeled from material, but made up of artificial objects. So the assembly became a springboard for multifaceted thinking, which is becoming increasingly important for the artist – for environmental art and hepenning. It also leads to new forms of the realization of creativity: the unification of spatial objects, which the viewer himself can enter in the installation. Pop art also had an impact on environmental art without happening. Artists entered into experiments with real objects.
Another step is the transition to action, which would be not only a part of the creative process, but also a part of creativity itself. This is embodied in hepening – it proceeds to an empty action, which becomes part of the artistic action. Yves Klein was considered the discoverer of this. It was he who took up non-traditional images of art. Acting under the influence of the elements, he called the created work “cosmogony.” In 1960, in the art gallery in Paris, for musicians playing various works, he created paintings “live brush” – painted in blue nude models. They are pressed to the canvases with their whole body leaving an imprint. These actions amazed the audience. He was shown a direct action, or rather, a lot of actions taking place without comment, logic. And the acting person, and the subject, and the viewer himself is an artistic combination of the same actions.
Pop art (pop art) embodied the creative search for new Americans who relied on the creative principles of Duchamp. These are: Jasper Jones, C. Aldenburg, Andy Warhol, and others.