Ornament of primitive peoples
People have long sought to decorate their homes and household items. Archaeologists, so far, find various confirmations of the existence of the art world of different eras. These confirmations are various household items that people tried to decorate with various ornaments characteristic of their era.
In the Paleolithic era, primitive people tried to reproduce the world in accurate and visible images. Therefore, the most important themes of Paleolithic art were the theme of animals and the theme of hunting. Basically, cave paintings are images of animals: mammoths, rhinos, bulls, horses, cave lions and bears.
The second place after the hunting scenes was occupied by the images of the rites of resurrection and reproduction of animals, embodying the magic of fertility. Also, when performing fertility rites, people were often portrayed, these were mainly female figures. These images were painted in black, red, yellow, and brown.
Later, together with images of animals, a primitive person begins to use conventional signs, various combinations of lines similar to geometric figures. Thus, the foundations of magical semantics are laid. Gradually, this leads to abstract geometric images of symbols that formed the basis for creating an ornament as a way of decoration. Tools and weapons, household utensils, mainly decorated with geometric ornaments, sometimes these objects were covered with carved or sculptural images of animals. Bracelets made of bone, striking originality of ornaments. The subtlest pattern decorating them in the form of meander stripes separated by parallel zigzags, or the “Christmas tree” pattern, surprises and delights.
At the end of the 3rd millennium BC, geometric ornamentation continues to prevail in Europe. The characteristic pattern of products made of artistic metal remains curved, wavy, ribbon-like or spiral patterns. Ceramic vessels are often decorated with a spiral with a convex point in the center. A similar ornament is also characteristic of the Central Europe of the Iron Age (the culture of Hallstatt, IX-VI centuries BC).
Celtic ornamentLatensky culture. (V — I centuries BC). Celtic ornament. In the V – I centuries. BC e., in Western Europe were very common Celtic tribes. Celtic art – uses abstract and floral motifs, borrowed from the Greeks and Etruscans. Also, in Celtic ornamental creativity, there are motifs associated with the image of the animal world and man, borrowed in the East.
The ornament, composed of stylized forms of people, animals and plants, in the form of triangles, spirals and dots was placed on a metal or stone decorated product. The images associated with the funeral cult were different, they differed in realism and concreteness.
From the V century BC. Celtic artisans began to use and modify patterns of ornaments of other peoples, thereby adding a kind of artistic “early Latin style”.
In the middle of the 4th century before and. e. The motives for the ornament on the Celtic products are images of birds and animals. Arts and crafts are becoming more accessible to the general public. Such an increase in the popularity of applied art contributed to the emergence of a plastic “Middle Latin style”, which spread widely in the II century. BC e. It began to use a relief pattern, often enriched with engraving.
Celtic ornament “Late Latensky style” appeared in the 1st century. BC. as a result of the decline of artistic craft. In the middle of the 3rd century BC. Celts conquered some parts of the territories of England. The Latin art that they brought to these territories was reworked by local craft schools. As a result of such processing, a new, “island style” was formed. Characteristic features of this style were bronze bicorn helmets; the ornament was dominated by motives of palmettes, spiral curls; a relief ornament is combined with a linear engraved pattern. From the 1st century BC e. The expansion of the Celts ceased, it was not slow to affect the nature of the forms and motifs of the ornament. The interpretation of the plot has become realistic; images of exotic animals also appear.
Gradually, from a variety of and disparate elements of the Celtic ornament, a single style was formed, in which animalistic and floral elements prevailed. The art of the Celts became the basis of the art of the peoples of France, Switzerland, Belgium, partly England. In Ireland and Scotland in the 7th-9th centuries this art reached a new heyday, and the “New Celtic style” arose.
Africa. The most common images of South Africa are mainly images of hunting scenes, battles, dances, images related to religious representations and mythology. Most often depicted the rites of inducing rain, burial, cult dances. Undoubtedly, all this was reflected in the culture and applied art of the peoples of Africa. Characteristic for the culture of the African people are the image of the heads and figures of animals.