Surrealism (from the French surrealisme – literally super-realism) is a trend in contemporary bourgeois art that originated in France in the early 1920s. Being a characteristic expression of the crisis of capitalist society. Surrealism finds its philosophical foundations in the subjective-idealistic theory of Freud. The contradictions tearing apart the bourgeois system, the feelings of horror in front of the real world, generated by these contradictions among some surrealist artists detached from the people, are embodied by the latter in images that cause an aversion to reality, to life. Hence the special interest of the surrealists in reproducing nightmares, hallucinations, pathological conditions. Created on the basis of the “principles” of surrealism, the paintings of Salvador Dali are filled with horrors, nightmares, and pessimism.
Its creators – young artists, poets considered surrealism as a way of knowing the subconscious, supernatural. According to the definition of the founder and ideologist of this trend, Andre Breton, surrealism is “pure psychic automatism, with the goal of expressing, either verbally, in writing, or in any other way, the real functioning of thought. The dictation of thought is beyond any control on the part of the mind, outside of any Continue reading
Romanticism (French romantisme from Latin romanum Roman from Roma – Rome) is one of two, along with Classicism, the fundamental tendencies of artistic thinking. However, historically, they began to call this word a wide range of very different phenomena. At the end of the 18th century, everything unusual, fantastic, that which occurs “as in novels”, was called romantic or “romantic”. Romantic, sublime poetry was then considered the only worthy form of art. But there was another interpretation of the term: romantic – this is the art of Romanesque peoples, mainly medieval, which was opposed to classical, antique. The French word “roman” originally meant literary works not written in classical Latin, but in vulgar, folk dialects. Therefore, romantic art was first understood as the art of the Middle Ages, including the Renaissance, which did not stand out in a special era. The modern name “novel” is a drama for reading, more often a love story, the composition and style of which deviate from the classical rules. From here comes the word romance (French romance, art. French romanz). Continue reading
Rococo (French rococo – artsy, bizarre from rocaille – rocky from roc – rock, cliff). Rococo is an original art style developed in the art of France in the first half of the 18th century. The same as the style of Louis XV, since it coincides with the time of the reign of this king (1720-1765). Rococo is one of the most famous “royal styles.” The origin of its name and basic forms is closely related to the concept of “rocaille”.
In 1736, the French jeweler and woodcarver J. Mondon “Son” published an album of engraved drawings entitled “The first book of the forms of rockail and cartel”. Cartel – French. cartelle by carte – card, paper scroll. But the word rocaille was then new. Back in the 17th century, it became fashionable in France to decorate park pavilions – grottoes stylized as natural caves, roughly processed with stones, molded shell-shaped decorations, intertwined plant stems associated with the theme of the sea and the attributes of the sea god Poseidon. These associations were strengthened by many fountains and ponds scattered in Continue reading