Plaster stucco on the marine theme
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Modern

Modern – (French moderne from Latin modemus – new, modern) – the period of development of European art at the turn of the XIX-XX centuries, the main content of which was the desire of artists to contrast their work with the historicism and eclecticism of art of the second half of the XIX century – this is the name. Therefore, the term “modern” should be distinguished from the general meaning of the word “contemporary” or “contemporary art”, as well as the term “modernism”, which means all the most avant-garde, experimental and formalistic trends in the art of the 20th century.

The chronological framework of Art Nouveau is very narrow, only some thirty years: approximately 1886-1914. However, Modern is not just one style, but many different styles and trends that make up the period, maybe no less important than the Renaissance of the 16th century.

The Art Nouveau period can also be compared with the era of the XVII-XVIII centuries, of course not in the volume of created values, but in the logic of the development of artistic ideas. Just as then – Classicism, Baroque, Rococo and again Neoclassicism, art of the late XIX century. summarized the experience of all previous artistic development, and if in the following years this period seemed only decadent, strange, painful and decadent, then after a few decades, in the middle of the 20th century, it became clear that it was then that important processes of accumulation and comprehension of new artistic ideas, search for forms, rapprochement of various types and genres of art. Artists of Modernity with their audacity broke all the usual boundaries. Their artistic thinking was characterized by surprisingly rapid growth.

Art Nouveau was compared with Rococo, without noticing the artistic discord that was neither in the art of antiquity, nor even in Mannerism or Rococo during the period of their “classical” development. That is why the term “modern” is more correct to use in relation to a certain historical period, and not to style, similarly to the concepts of “antiquity”, “middle ages”, “renaissance”. In this regard, the common expression “Art Nouveau style” must be quoted. It is no coincidence that at the beginning of the century Art Nouveau was called not an art style, but a “lifestyle”, as new trends permeated all aspects of human existence.

Among the main currents of modern art are usually distinguished:
– floreal, or “Ar Nuvo”;
– neo-romantic (national romantic);
– rational, or geometric;
– “neoplasticism”, or “organic architecture”;
– neoclassicism.

All these trends were united by a common worldview “fin de siecle”, distinguished, on the one hand, by confusion, spiritual fatigue, crisis of ideals, skepticism and self-irony, and on the other, by persistent searches for a new “big style” in all areas of creative life, blurring the boundaries between the elite and mass art. This led to twofold consequences. The spread of philistine tastes, incredible vulgarity, penetrating even the work of prominent artists, and sophisticated symbolism, mysticism, sophistication of visual media that have become available to consumers of art. All this was surprisingly combined in Modernity and was generally expressed in the desire for everything unusual, strange, fantastic, sometimes painful and repulsive.

The main feature of Art Nouveau art is that the new in it was formed primarily in the field of architecture, decorative and applied art, but not so much by the architects themselves as by painters and graphic artists. Similarly, in the 18th century during the Rococo era, the creators of the new style were painters and draftsmen.

Art Nouveau completed at the beginning of the XX century. its own stylistic development cycle and, according to many researchers, the “classical” period of romanticism of European art in general. Many are convinced that the Art Nouveau artists were never able to solve the grandiose tasks they posed to create a new “big style” and therefore Modern remained the transition period.

Art Nouveau was compared with Rococo, without noticing the artistic discord that was neither in the art of antiquity, nor even in Mannerism or Rococo during the period of their “classical” development. That is why the term “modern” is more correct to use in relation to a certain historical period, and not to style, similarly to the concepts of “antiquity”, “middle ages”, “renaissance”. In this regard, the common expression “Art Nouveau style” must be quoted. It is no coincidence that at the beginning of the century Art Nouveau was called not an art style, but a “lifestyle”, as new trends permeated all aspects of human existence.

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