National Gallery, London, England
In England, as every more or less stubborn student knows, the oldest constitutional monarchy. Therefore, it is customary to think that there, especially in former times, nothing was done without…

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Identity is a key feature of Japanese ukiyo-e engravings. Having no analogies in the art of other countries of the Far East, this system formed the basis for the formation…

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Mannerism

Mannerism (Italian: Manierismo – pretentiousness, mannerism from maniera – reception, method) – a name that conventionally indicates stylistic tendencies, as well as a certain stage in the development of European, mainly Italian, art of the middle and late 16th century. This stage reflected the crisis of artistic ideals of the Italian Renaissance. The art of Mannerism as a whole is characterized by the primacy of form over content. Exquisite technique, virtuosity of manner, demonstration of mastery does not correspond to the scarcity of design, secondary and imitative ideas. In Mannerism there is a tiredness of the style, the exhaustion of its life sources. That is why this term is often interpreted more broadly, calling mannerism the last, crisis phase of the development of any artistic style in various historical eras.

Mannerism always indicates the degeneration of one and the imminent advent of a new style. This role was most clearly manifested in Italy, where the mannerist tendencies foreshadowed the birth of Baroque. H. Wölflin wrote that it was not by chance that Mannerism received such a powerful development in Italy, where “the cult of naked body plastic was especially developed … In the movement of figures by Leonardo and Michelangelo … every moment threatens to turn into artificiality and mannerism.” J. Vasari criticized the Italian Quattrocento painting with the words “aspro a vedere” (Italian: “hard for sight”, probably referring to strict, tectonic and sculptural interpretation of the form of early Florentine Classicism.

For the first time, the term “maniera” began to acquire special meaning in the middle of the 16th century among Venetian painters who used it with a shade of “new style” (Italian: “maniera nuova”) to denote the style of work of modern artists in contrast to the older generation: J. Bellini, Giorgione, Titian. In this sense, the term “manner” meant a positive assessment of the new, original, original in art, which transcends the boundaries of the classical tradition.

For the first time since the Renaissance, with such difficulty, the harmony of content and form, image and expression began to disintegrate due to the overdevelopment and aesthetization of individual elements, visual means: lines and silhouettes, colorful spots and textures, strokes and strokes. The beauty of a single detail became more important than the beauty of the whole. This path is inevitable for the evolution of forms of any artistic style, but the Renaissance, the greatest in its artistic achievements, has created an outstanding mannerism.

In the architecture of Italy in the second half of the XVI century. Mannerism was manifested in the arbitrary mixing and illogical use of elements of various orders, Romanesque and Gothic archaisms.

Early mannerism in Florence was provided by the work of J. Pontormo, an outstanding artist who worked under strong influence, who was in Michelangelo in 1520-1534. Therefore, the mannerism of Pontormo was distinguished by high spirituality, despite its clearly imitative character. The next generation of Florentine mannerists: a student of Pontormo A. Bronzino, as well as J. Vasari, B. Bandinelli, former court painters of the Florentine Duke Cosimo I Medici, O. Gentileschi, A. Magnasco, Parmigianino, F. Salieiati and many others gradually lost this quality why their art is even called “manner Mannerism” (maniere manierismo). This term was proposed in 1963. D. Smith.

Later mannerists, feeling the discrepancy between classical norms and the needs of the time, destroyed compositional ties, but, unlike Baroque artists, could not find a new organizing spatial principle.

Mannerism always indicates the degeneration of one and the imminent advent of a new style. This role was most clearly manifested in Italy, where the mannerist tendencies foreshadowed the birth of Baroque. H. Wölflin wrote that it was not by chance that Mannerism received such a powerful development in Italy, where “the cult of naked body plastic was especially developed … In the movement of figures by Leonardo and Michelangelo … every moment threatens to turn into artificiality and mannerism.” J. Vasari criticized the Italian Quattrocento painting with the words “aspro a vedere” (Italian: “hard for sight”, probably referring to strict, tectonic and sculptural interpretation of the form of early Florentine Classicism.

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