Graphics is a type of fine art. It can be divided into three types:
– monumental – is closely connected with the architectural ensemble, for example, a poster (monumental printed graphics), wall graphics, cardboards;
– easel – performed “on the machine”, has no connection with a certain interior, the purpose and meaning of the work is completely limited to the artistic content (drawing, print, print);
– decorative – book illustrations, postcards, any graphic images on any subject that do not have special artistic value, but serve to organize the surface of the subject. Also, floristry refers to decorative graphics – compositions created using the fluff of trees, straws and other “living” materials.
The specificity of the art of graphics is made up of a drawing, here it is the leading, determining beginning and is applied in a purer form. Therefore, you can consider drawing the main means of graphics.
The word “graphics” itself originates from the Greek grapho – I write, draw. The drawing tells about the character, temperament, mood of the artist, about his emotions and feelings. The language of graphics is based mainly on the expressive capabilities of the line, stroke, spot, background background, as the color in graphics is used more limitedly than in painting. Graphics tend to be monochrome, most often using a combination of two colors. The materials and techniques of graphics are diverse, but, as a rule, the basis is a paper sheet. Colorful materials and techniques are determined by the type of graphics.
Easel graphics, depending on the nature of the technique, is divided into two types: print and drawing.
Print – from the French estamper – stamp, print – print on paper. The first image is not made directly on paper, but on a plate of some solid material, with which the drawing is then printed, imprinted using a press. In this case, you can get not one copy of the print, but many, that is, to replicate the graphic image. Printing is also used in applied graphics, in posters, and book illustrations. But there the printing form is made from the original, made by the artist, photomechanical, machine way.
The process of creating a printing form from any solid material – wood, metal, linoleum – is called engraving (from the French word graver – cut). The pattern is created by cutting, scratching with any sharp tool – a needle, a cutter. Graphic works printed with an engraving plate are called engraving.
Depending on the material from which the printing plate is created, different types of engraving are distinguished:
– lithography – the printed form is the surface of the stone. The stone is very smoothly polished and degreased. The image on the lithographic stone is applied with special, thick lithographic ink or pencil. The stone is wetted with water, then paint is rolled, adhering only to the previously applied drawing.
– Algraphy – flat printing, the technique is similar to lithography, but instead of stone, an aluminum plate is used.
– Woodcut – woodcut, cut with a special cutter. Paint is rolled onto the plane of the original board. When printing on paper, the cut-out areas remain white. The prints are an outline drawing with thick black lines.
– linocut – engraving on linoleum. The technique is very close to woodcut, only linoleum is used instead of wood.
– metal engraving is performed on zinc, copper, iron, steel. Metal engraving is divided into etched and non-etched printing. There are a large number of techniques for this type of engraving:
– dry needle technique (the drawing is applied directly to the metal by scratching the tip of a hard needle with strokes on the surface of a metal board);
– mezzo-tinto (from Italian mezzo – medium and tinto – painted. View of an in-depth engraving in which the surface of a metal board is roughened with a rough edge, giving a solid black background when printing.);
– etching (from French eau-forte – nitric acid. The pattern is scratched by an engraving needle in a layer of acid-resistant varnish covering a metal plate. The scratched spots are etched with acid, and the resulting in-depth image is filled with ink and printed on paper);
– aquatint (from Italian aquatinta – an engraving method based on acid etching of a metal plate surface with deposited asphalt or rosin dust);
– soft varnish.
Graphics Easel drawing is more affordable in execution. Drawing is a freehand image using graphic means: contour line, dash and spot. There are numerous varieties of drawing, differing in drawing methods, themes and genres, technique and nature of performance. The drawing is performed by the artist directly on a piece of paper with any graphic material – pencil, charcoal, ink, sanguine, watercolor, gouache.