Pablo Picasso was one of the most famous creators of the XX century. His name becomes a synonym for a whole artistic direction, and his personality not only captivates people who knew the artist, but managed to conquer the whole world.
Pablo Picasso was born on October 15, 1881 in Malaga, a bustling port city in southern Spain. His parents are Maria Picasso Lopez and Jose Runes Blasco. Jose was engaged in painting and taught it.
In 1893, the family moved to Barcelona, where Jose began working at the La Lonja art school. Picasso began to study there, and in 1897 he continued his education at the Madrid Academy of Fine Arts. He soon realized that the Academy would not give him anything, and returned to Barcelona, where he organized his own studio. He was then only 16 years old.
His early paintings are often filled with sadness. He initially subscribed to them – P. Ruiz, but later supplemented this signature with his mother’s maiden name, turning into “P. Ruiz Picasso. ” At the age of twenty, he took himself a pseudonym under which the whole world recognized him. Picasso took the pseudonym so that he would not be confused with his father.
Like all the ambitious artists of the time. Picasso dreamed of getting to Paris. His dream came true in 1900. In 1904, he finally settled in Paris. The years 1900-1304 are called the “blue period” in the work of Picasso, since most of the paintings he created during these years were painted in cool blue tones. The “blue period” was replaced by a short-term “pink”, when the artist preferred a warmer gamut (mainly shades of pink).
In 1904, Picasso acquired the studio in a dilapidated house. For the next five years, he lived in this studio. It was here that the young artist met the model Fernanda Olivier, who became his mistress. He repeatedly depicted Fernando in his paintings.
In Paris, Picasso quickly entered the circle of avant-garde artists and remained friends with many poets until the end of his life. Among them, one can name Guillaume Appoliner, who was one of the first to appreciate the work of Picasso, Max Jacob and Andre Salmon, who left alive, although not always true, memories of the then bohemian life. Picasso became especially close with Max Jacob. In the winter of 1902-1903 when Picasso literally became mendicant, Jacob invited the artist to share his room with him. There was one bed, and friends shared it by the time of the day: Jacob slept at night, and Picasso during the day, and this suited both, because Pablo preferred to work at night. Among the friends of Picasso, one can distinguish another writer and film director Jean Cocteau and composers Eric Sati and Igor Stravinsky.
Picasso and Fernanda lived in Bateau Lavois quite a bohemian life. However, Picasso did not stop working and soon achieved success. By 1907, he became known among collectors and art dealers who became interested in a bright young talent. At the same time, Picasso never exhibited his work at ordinary public exhibitions, and this was another manifestation of his amazing individualism.
Among the people who supported Picasso was a painting dealer, a German by birth, Daniel-Heinrich Canweiler.
It was Canweiler in 1907 who introduced Picasso to the talented young artist Georges Braque. For several years, both artists worked closely. As a result, a new direction in painting appeared – cubism. Cubism denied the traditional notion that the object or person depicted in the picture should be viewed from only one specific angle. The fruitful cooperation of Braque and Picasso continued until 1914, when the world war broke out and Braque was drafted into the army. In 1917, the artist visited Rome, where he worked on the sets and costumes for the ballet Parade, directed by Russian choreographer Sergei Diaghilev. Here Picasso fell in love with Olga Khokhlova, one of the dancers of the Russian troupe. They got married in 1918. It was then that Picasso forever said goodbye to a bohemian life. With his young wife, he moved to a luxurious apartment. The funds allowed this to be done – by then Picasso had become a prosperous and recognized artist.
In 1921, Pablo and Olga had a son, Paul, but their marriage cannot be called happy. In fact, it ended in January 1927, when Picasso became interested in 17-year-old Marie-Theresa Walter. The master himself was then 45. In 1935, a girl was born to Marie-Therese, who was named Maya. The situation was delicate, because Picasso’s marriage with Olga, concluded under Spanish law, could not be dissolved. Olga and Pablo formally remained husband and wife until the death of Olga in 1955.
But Picasso’s relationship with Marie-Therese did not work out either. They stopped already in 1937, when her place in the heart of the artist was taken by photographer Dora Maar. Marie-Therese pursued Picasso for the rest of her life, committing suicide shortly after his death.
Despite the fact that Picasso lived for many years in France, the threads connecting him to his homeland never broke, and Spanish themes appeared on the artist’s canvases more than once.