Sculpture (lat. Sculptura, from sculpo – carve, cut), sculpture, plastic (Greek plastike, from plasso – sculpt), a form of fine art based on the principle of a three-dimensional, physically three-dimensional image of an object. Sculpture arose in the primitive era, as evidenced by the results of archaeological excavations conducted in different countries. The sculpture of the primitive period often served as a means of decorating utensils, tools and hunting, and was used as amulets. Developing, the sculpture acquired new functions and attitude towards itself.
The object of the image in the sculpture is mainly – a man, less often – animals, even less – nature and things. The idea in sculpture is conveyed by the author using expressive means, such as, for example, staging a figure in space, conveying its movement, and choosing proportions.
There are two main types of sculpture: a round sculpture, which is freely placed in space, and a relief, where the image is located on the plane that forms its background. Round sculptures include: a statue (a figure in height), a group (two or more figures that make up a single whole), a figurine (a figure significantly smaller than life size), a torso (image of a human body), a bust (breast image of a person), etc. The forms of the relief vary depending on its purpose and position on the architectural plane (frieze, pediment, ceiling, etc.). According to the height and depth of the image, the reliefs are divided into low – bas-relief, high – high relief, in-depth and counter-reliefs.
According to its content and functions, the sculpture is divided into monumental and decorative, easel and the so-called sculpture of small forms.
Monumental and decorative sculpture is designed for a specific architectural, spatial or natural environment. It is located primarily in public places – on the streets and squares of the city, in parks, on facades and in the interiors of public buildings.
Easel sculpture, not directly related to architecture, has a more “home” character. Halls of exhibitions, museums, residential interiors, where it can be viewed close and in all details, are its usual environment. Her favorite genres: portrait, everyday genre, nude, animalistic genre.
The sculpture of small forms is a work intended mainly for a residential interior, and in many respects is closely connected with decorative and applied art. Coins, medals and gems also belong to the sculpture of small forms.
Sculpture The choice of sculptural material depends on the purpose and content of the sculptural work, and the technique of sculpture execution depends on the material itself. Soft substances (clay, wax, plasticine, etc.) are used for modeling; solids (various types of stone, wood, etc.) are processed by carving or carving; substances capable of passing from a liquid state to a solid state (various metals, gypsum, concrete, plastic, etc.) are used for casting sculptures using specially made molds. To create sculptures in metal, they also resort to electroplating. In the molten state, the metal for sculpture is processed by forging and embossing. To create ceramic sculptures, special grades of clay are used, which are usually covered with painting or colored glaze and burned in special furnaces.
The process of creating a sculpture can be divided into the following steps:
– modeling (from clay or clay) of a sketch and sketches from nature;
– manufacture of a frame for a large sculpture or shield for relief (iron rods, wire, nails, wood);
– work on a rotating machine or vertically mounted shield over the model in a given size;
– turning the clay model into a plaster;
– translating it into solid material (stone or wood) using a puncturing machine and the appropriate processing technique or casting from metal followed by minting;
– platinization or tinting of the statue.
Also known are works of sculpture created from hard materials (marble, wood) without prior modeling of the clay original, made using the taille directe technique, that is, direct cutting.